In higher education especially, a virtual learning environment (VLE) is sometimes combined with a management information system (MIS) to create a managed learning environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface throughout the institution. Physical universities and newer online only colleges offer select academic degrees and certificate programs via the Internet. Some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, but many are delivered completely online. Several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments and student newspapers.
The main sex education programme in Scotland is Healthy Respect, which focuses not only on the biological aspects of reproduction but also on relationships and emotions. Education about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are included in the programme as a way of encouraging good sexual health. In response to a refusal by Catholic schools to commit to the programme, however, a separate sex education programme has been developed for use in those schools. Funded by the Scottish Government, the programme Called to Love focuses on encouraging children to delay sex until marriage, and does not cover contraception, and as such is a form of abstinence only sex education.
Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom.
In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned “learning webs” as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada. In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a “college without walls” using television station KOCE TV as a vehicle. In the UK the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government’s National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning (1973-77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980-86).
Educational technology includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD ROM, and computer based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web based learning. Information and communication systems, whether free standing or based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underlie many e learning processes.
Locus of control remains an important consideration in successful engagement of e learners. According to the work of Cassandra B. Whyte, the continuing attention to aspects of motivation and success in regard to e learning should be kept in context and concert with other educational efforts. Information about motivational tendencies can help educators, psychologists, and technologists develop insights to help students perform better academically.
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas, Blazek, Raley, 2006).
Universities may employ a number of people. Depending on the funding, a university typically hires one teacher per 3-25 students. According to the ideal of research university, the university teaching staff is actively involved in the research of the institution. In addition, the university usually also has dedicated research staff and a considerable support staff. Typically to work in higher education as a member of the academic faculty, a candidate must first obtain a doctorate in an academic field, although some lower teaching positions require only a master’s degree.