Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves thinking whereas the latter does not. In addition to educating reason, of central importance to him was the development of character and teaching of moral maxims. Kant was a proponent of public education and of learning by doing.
Leo Marx considered the word “technology” itself as problematic, susceptible to reification and “phantom objectivity”, which conceals its fundamental nature as something that is only valuable insofar as it benefits the human condition. Technology ultimately comes down to affecting the relations between people, but this notion is obfuscated when technology is treated as an abstract notion devoid of good and evil. Langdon Winner makes a similar point by arguing that the underdevelopment of the philosophy of technology leaves us with an overly simplistic reduction in our discourse to the supposedly dichotomous notions of the “making” versus the “uses” of new technologies, and that a narrow focus on “use” leads us to believe that all technologies are neutral in moral standing. These critiques would have us ask not, “How do we maximize the role or advancement of technology in education?”, but, rather, “What are the social and human consequences of adopting any particular technology?”
As a part of the tenth Five year Plan (2002-2007), the central government of India outlined an expenditure of 66% of its total education budget of ?438 billion (US$660;billion) i.e. ?288 billion (US$360;billion) on elementary education; 9% i.e. ?425 billion (US$65060;million) on secondary education; 9% i.e. ?15 billion (US$19060;million) on adult education; 5% i.e. ?4765 billion (US$63060;million) on higher education; 17% i.e. ?47 billion (US$71060;million) on technical education; and the remaining 4% i.e. ?235 billion (US$9460;million) on miscellaneous education schemes.
In the academic year 2011 2012 most undergraduates paid fees that were set at a maximum of L3,375 per annum. These fees are repayable after graduation, contingent on attaining a certain level of income, with the state paying all fees for students from the poorest backgrounds. UK students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance. Undergraduates admitted for the academic year 2012 2013 will pay tuition fees set at a maximum of up to L9,000 per annum, with most universities charging over L6,000 per annum, and other higher education providers charging less.
The 2002 No Child Left Behind, passed by a bipartisan coalition in Congress provided federal aid to the states in exchange for measures to penalize schools that were not meeting the goals as measured by standardized state exams in mathematics and language skills. In the same year, the U.S. Supreme Court diluted some of the century old “Blaine” laws upheld an Ohio law allowing aid to parochial schools under specific circumstances. The 2006 Commission on the Future of Higher Education evaluated higher education.
On Narai’s death, fearing further foreign interference in Thai education and culture, and conversion to Catholicism, xenophobic sentiments at court increased and diplomatic activities were severely reduced and ties with the West and any forms of Western education were practically severed. They did not recover their former levels until the reign of King Mongkut in the mid nineteenth century.
It has been alleged, since the 1950s and especially in recent years, that American schooling is undergoing a crisis in which academic performance is behind other countries, such as Russia, Japan, or China, in core subjects. Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958 in an attempt to rectify these problems, and a series of other legislative acts in later decades such as No Child Left Behind. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, however, American students of 2012 ranked 25th in math, 17th in science, and 14th in reading compared with students in 27 other countries. In 2013, Amanda Ripley published The Smartest Kids in the World (And How They Got That Way), a comparative study of how the American education system differs from top performing countries such as Finland and South Korea.
For example, a 1999 study by the Guttmacher Institute found that most U.S. sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STDs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely.
Educational technology and e learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor led, synchronous learning. It is suited to distance learning and in conjunction with face to face teaching, which is termed blended learning. Educational technology is used by learners and educators in homes, schools (both K 12 and higher education), businesses, and other settings.
From the first Five year Plan onwards, India’s emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower. India’s National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament. At the federal level, the Indian Institutes of Technology,the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology are deemed of national importance.